Dharma Monk

The Dharma Monk blog is dedicated to sharing ideas & opinions about learning technologies, self development, people and anything in between.

24 Charts Of Leadership Styles Around The World

Different cultures can have radically different leadership styles, and international organizations would do well to understand them.

British linguist Richard D. Lewis charted these differences in his book “When Cultures Collide,” first published in 1996 and now in its third edition, and he teaches these insights in seminars with major corporate clients.

From structured individualism in the U.S. to ringi-sho consensus in Japan, the charts seem intuitively correct, if not unilaterally true across a country.

Lewis acknowledges the risks of dealing in stereotypes: “Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception. There is, however, such a thing as a national norm.”

He argues that these patterns won’t change any time soon: “Even in countries where political and economic change is currently rapid or sweeping, deeply rooted attitudes and beliefs will resist a sudden transformation of values when pressured by reformists, governments or multinational conglomerates.”

With permission from the author, we are posting 24 charts of leadership styles from his book, with a brief summary of his comments about each below:


Leadership Charts Layout_02


British managers are diplomatic, casual, helpful, willing to compromise, and seeking to be fair, though they can be ruthless when necessary. Unfortunately, their adherence to tradition can result in a failure to comprehend differing values in others.

American managers are assertive, aggressive, goal and action oriented, confident, vigorous, optimistic, and ready for change. They are capable of teamwork and corporate spirit, but they value individual freedom and their first interest is furthering their own career.

French managers tend to be autocratic and paternalistic, with an impressive grasp of the many issues facing their company. Opinions of experienced middle managers and technical staff may be dismissed.

Swedish management is decentralized and democratic. The rationale is that better informed employees are more motivated and perform better. The drawback is that decisions can be delayed.

Charts taken and text summarized from “When Cultures Collide” with permission from author Richard Lewis.

Source: Business Insider
Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/leadership-styles-around-the-world-2013-12#ixzz2xl3JIjID


These Diagrams Reveal How To Negotiate With People Around The World

You can’t expect negotiations with French to be like negotations with Americans, and the same holds true for cultures around the world.

British linguist Richard D. Lewis charted communication patterns as well as leadership styles and cultural identities in his book, “When Cultures Collide,” now in a 2005 third edition. His organization offers classes in cross-cultural communication for big clients ranging from Unilever to BMW.

In support of cultural studies, he writes: “By focusing on the cultural roots of national behavior, both in society and business, we can foresee and calculate with a surprising degree of accuracy how others will react to our plans for them, and we can make certain assumptions as to how they will approach us. A working knowledge of the basic traits of other cultures (as well as our own) will minimize unpleasant surprises (culture shock), give us insights in advance, and enable us to interact successfully with nationalities with whom we previously had difficulty.”

Although cultural generalizations can be overly reductive, Lewis, who speaks ten languages, insists it can be done fairly, writing: “Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception. There is, however, such a thing as a national norm.”

When meeting with French, be prepared for a vigorous logical debate.

When meeting with Americans, expect them to lay all their cards on the table, get upset when there’s a disagreement, and resolve as fast as possible with one or both sides making concessions.

We’ll go over the rest in brief after a selection of communication charts taken with permission from “When Cultures Collide.” Below, conversational range is shown with increasing width, obstacles are marked in gray, and cultural traits are noted as well.


As you may surmise, “When Cultures Collide” spends relatively little time on today’s emerging markets, which is unfortunate but not surprising since it was originally published in 1996. The book does offer some commentary on Africa, South America, and other places not mentioned here, however, as well as much further commentary on these 25 countries — and we advise anyone interested in international communication to check it out.

Let’s go over the other diagrams in brief,  paraphrasing and quoting from Lewis:

Source: Business Insider

Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/communication-charts-around-the-world-2014-3#ixzz2xl20VSiV

An Analysis of LinkedIn’s Gamification Design Elements

The professional network LinkedIn uses a number of gamification design elements. In this article we take a look at them and describe how they work and what their purpose is.


To make the professional network valuable for all members, information about each member is needed. The more a user enters, the more valuable for the overall network. When new members sign up, they tend to fill out the most basic information only, hesitating how much information shall be shared. The profile completeness bar (Figure 1) gently nudges users to reach 100% by appealing to achieve a sense of completion. Note that while it is easy to quickly increase the percentage at the beginning, reaching one hundred percent completeion requires succeedingly more effort, appealing to the fun motivator of mastering a skill.

LinkedIn Profile Completeness BarFigure 1: LinkedIn Profile Completeness Bar

When interviewing LinkedIn-members, most of them will tell that because of the progress bar they had filled out more information, without knowing that they “are being gamified.”

LinkedIn has introduced a new form of such a display, called profile strength. Depending on how much the circle is filled – like a cup with water – levels are assigned to it, in the example in Figure 2 it’s the level All-Star.

LinkedIn Profile StrengthFigure 2: LinkedIn Profile Strength

The reason for this visualization has to do with a disadvantage that the original form of a progress bar for the profile completeness brings. Once the bar reaches 100%, there is no need to add more information to the profile, which would make updates such as job changes, new titles, or certifications less relevant.

Even with those two gamification design elements users could still miss out other relevant information. The profile completeness and profile strength contain self-reported qualities, which need to be verified through other channels.Endorsements try to fill this gap by allowing other members – who are connected to the member in question – to report additional skills.

LinkedIn EndorsementsFigure 3: LinkedIn Endorsements

While not all endorsements may make sense, the overall result from the aggregated endorsements creates a relatively accurate picture of the skills and expertise of a member (Figure 4).

LinkedIn Skills & ExpertiseFigure 4: LinkedIn Skills & Expertise

 Profile Views

A profile would be worthless, if others were not seeing it. The statistics on Who’s viewed your profile give feedback on the number of views and how often a users profile has shown up in search results over the past day (Figure 5) and the past 3 days (Figure 6).

LinkedIn Who's viewed your profile - Past dayFigure 5: LinkedIn Who’s viewed your profile – Past day

LinkedIn Who's viewed your profile - Past 3 daysFigure 6: LinkedIn Who’s viewed your profile – Past 3 days

The same numbers are plotted in a diagram over the past 90 days (Figure 7). to show the trend.

LinkedIn How often people viewed youFigure 7: LinkedIn How often people viewed you

Who’s viewed your profile-dashboard also displays the last five members who have viewed the profile (Figure 8). This list is not only fulfilling the fun motivator of being the center of attention, but also encourages users to click on these other users and potentially contact or connect with them.

LinkedIn Who's viewed your profile - OverallFigure 8: LinkedIn Who’s viewed your profile – Overall


LinkedIn-members are not only sharing their personal and professional information, they are also encourage to share updates, such as articles, events, jobs and other information related to their professional lifes.

LinkedIn ArticleFigure 9: LinkedIn Article

The updates contain feedback design elements such as likes and comments (Figure 9).

LinkedIn Who's viewed your updatesFigure 10: LinkedIn Who’s viewed your updates

A separate visualization breaks down how many other members have viewed the update. The breakdown is done by members according to the degree of connection, displayed in Figure 10 as an example with first, second, and third degree tallying up to 202 views and 3 likes.


LinkedIn-members that a user is connected to form a user’s personal professional network. Figure 11 shows the the LinkedIn Network that a user has, including the number of (direct) connections and new members in the network from the past 3 days, based on the second and third degree connections of a user’s new (first degree) connections.

LinkedIn Your LinkedIn NetworkFigure 11: LinkedIn Your LinkedIn Network

The more connections a member has, the larger the potential influence over people.


Being member of a group and posting updates and responses there can increase the potential influence over people and status as expert in a community. The number of (group) members (Figure 12) is also an indicator for the group moderator, how successful the task was that derived from the motivation of organizing groups of people.

LinkedIn GroupsFigure 12: LinkedIn Groups

The group contribution level (Figure 12 and Figure 13) indicates how relevant a member’s contributions to the group are and on what level the user is. Such an indicator is not catering towards competition with other members, but generally against oneself to reach a higher level (such as “Making an impact” or “Top Contributor“).

LinkedIn Your group contribution levelFigure 13: LinkedIn Your group contribution level

Annual Update

At the beginning fo 2013, LinkedIn sent out emails to its members congratulating them to being one of the top viewed profiles in the year 2012 (Figure 14). This came as a surprise for many members and was heavily discussed and distributed over social networks, which again attracted existing members to improve their own profiles, and create more updates. This also created awareness with non-members to join the professional network.

Such an email fulfills the fun motivators of being the center of attention and influencing other people.

LinkedIn Most Viewed ProfilesFigure 14: LinkedIn Most Viewed Profiles

Source: 12 December 2013 07:44 | Written by Mario Herger | http://enterprise-gamification.com/

The 2014 Gamification Forecast

The 2014 Gamification ForecastWe are close to leveling up to 2014, which means it’s time to take a peek forward at the state of gamification and what we can expect in the new year. Based on the experiences in 2013 and the gamification trends that we have seen through our work at Enterprise Gamification Consulting, here is what we will see in the next 12 months.


#1 Gamification is here to stay

Whenever you see an article asking “Is Gamification a buzz/hype/fad?” (feel free to replace gamification with any other concept and technology and you get the same picture), you know that it’s not a fad anymore and the author needs to hurry in order not to miss the train.

We are in the fourth year of gamification, with close to two dozen gamification conferences having taken place on a global scale in 2013. Over 100 studiesmasters and doctoral thesis published on the topic demonstrate a viable and scientific interest in gamification.

And not only gamification is here to stay, so is the name itself. Even if you don’t like the term (and those discussion seem to have more shelf life than they should), the battle is lost. Gamification is here to stay. Move on, don’t make this awkward.

#2 HR will Drive Gamification

Corporations worldwide have been doing a phenominally catastrophic job of managing their most important resources: people.Gallup’s long-running studies on employee engagement reveil that on a global scale only 13% of employees are engaged. In other words: 87% or not engaged or actively disengaged – read: going so far as to even sabotage the company.

Part of the reason has been that although companies are spending billions of dollars every year on employee evaluations and management, nearly none of the approaches are creating the necessary data to evaluate the true performance and capabilities of an employee. Nor do they create an environment for engagement, with management often actively (and unconsciously) discouraging the same.

This interactive chart published by the Harvard Business Review gives a sad state of engagement.

Map: Global Employee Engagement (Gallup) Map: Global Employee Engagement (Gallup)

The result is the dismal state of engagement. This translates into a workforce that’s effectively underperforming. But because everyone is doing a bad job, your own bad job doesn’t stick out. We occasionally realize the true potential of engaged employees, when some superstar companies suddenly raise like meteorites.

Gamification solves two problems at once for HR: the core idea is that it’s design revolves around engaging the employees, and to achieve that it creates a large data trail of the activities. As gamification will eventually touch all aspects in an organization, HR needs to own gamification and oversee it’s implementation and operation.

Several of our customers have understood that already. All gamification initiatives are coordinated by their HR departments and put into a larger strategy. And that is another reason, why gamification is not a fad but here to stay: how can something that engages employees and creates such an invaluable amount of skill data be considered a short-lived fad?

#3 Gamification will Drive Big Data & Cloud

The gamification activity data collected will be the largest dataset inside an organization. And we talk about billions of records and terrabytes of data. Rajat Paharia, founder of gamification platform company Bunchball has been preaching that mantra for some time and made the case in his bestseller Loyalty 3.0. Simple calculations show you that gamification data will dwarf any other data that an organization creates. Assume that every employee generates through his or her daily work 100 activity-related records, from publishing a knowledgebase-article, sharing information with co-workers on the intranet, responding to emails, creating new key accounts, correcting a document, expensing travel costs in time, etc., and multiply that by the number of your employees. With just 10,000 employees organizations quickly create 1 million records per day. That is far more data than most transactional systems create.

This data can find use in a variety of ways:

  • for the employee in real-time to show them how they are doing and show them how they can improve and learn,
  • by the system to reward employees and give them feedback in a timely manner,
  • by HR and management to analyze activities, skills and their progression over time,
  • finding experts for different areas to match the rightly skilled employees for new projects,
  • replace periodical performance reviews with real-time feedback and learning.

As most gamification technologies are offered as software as a service, the combination of big data and Saas will drive cloud technologies as well. Even with some pushbacks thanks to NSA-spying and general skeptic in Europe, cloud-based solutions are currently the only viable way to go.

#4 From Denial to Acceptance

The success of gamification in changing behaviors and habits and making the life of people more entertaining and fun has been proven by many examples. From the anecdotal, to hard numbers in corporations, education, or healthcare, to an overwhelming evidence from scientific studies, applying gamification shows positive results.

This body of evidence helped to a lot of corporate people that we had interacted with in the past year to lay the grounds in their own organizations for gamification. When they first came to us to attend a workshop or listen to our presentation, they were the “lone nutcases” in their organization. Armed with some advice, facts & figures, and supporting materials from us, as well as connecting them with “lone nutcases” from other companies, gamification has become a new toolset for many organizations.

And a recent analysis on which companies have the most employees that have gamification in their LinkedIn profiledemonstrates in an impressive way that gamification is considered a gamechanger. With SAP, Accenture, Microsoft, IBM, Cognizant, and Oracle leading the pack, this topic is too important to keep staying in denial.

#5 Gamification will Grow Up and Lose Its Innocence

While even with the most basic gamification approaches using only pointsbadges, and leaderboards (aka PBL) the improvements in tracked metrics are astonishing, more sophisticated approaches are appearing in the first examples. After all, there are many more gamification design elements than those three that secure a longer-lasting and intrinsically motivatedengagement. Gamification designers also experience that competition (as the opposite of collaboration) is not necessarily the way to go, especially in a corporate environment.

But of course this is a learning process for gamification designers and represents a natural evolution of how we design gameful applications. While incentive systems and perks have been around for quite a while (representing Gamification 1.0), gamification based on a larger choice of extrinsic motivators such as PBL are just an intermediate step as Gamification 2.0, leading to a more sophisticated design that we can call Gamification 3.0.

We must not be surprised seeing in 2014 that beside growing up, we may see gamification losing more of its innocence. Many of us went into the gamification business with the real believe to make life and work better for people. If the year 2013 and before were an indication with a military (see the article on the IDF) or terroristic use of gamification (The world of Holy Warcraft), there is a high probability that we see more cringeworthy applications of gamification. Does this make gamification a bad thing? No, every technology and every concept can be used for good or evil. It just tells you that gamification has grown up.

#6 Convergence of Game & Gamification Technologies

As gamification practitioners consider serious gamessimulations, and gamification as categories under the umbrella-term ofEnterprise Gamification, the current gap between gamification and game technologies will force game studios and gamification technology companies to converge and integrate their technologies. While there is still a lot of space for new gamification technology entrants, either they have to bring in a new approach of integrated technologies, or the incumbents need to think of working together closer or even merging their organizations.


Summarizing from the forecast above, it’s never been a better moment to get into gamification than now.

80’lerin Muhteşem Dizileri / 80’s Great TV Series

Bakalım çocukluğumuzun  bu muhteşem yabancı dizilerini hatırlayabilecek misiniz? Let’s see if you can remember the great TV series of our childhood? Some titles are in Turkish!

Mavi Ay – http://youtu.be/bceQA9ynU9E

Mavi Ay (Dizi Finali) – http://youtu.be/wFbmMCIO3Mc

Kara Şimşek – http://youtu.be/BpPubRZhZs8

Quantum Leap – http://youtu.be/f4AqO7dBr8o

A Takımı – http://youtu.be/_MVonyVSQoM

MacGyver – http://youtu.be/PNl9M5TxGC8

Dallas – http://youtu.be/ZsVZUJVVaIE

80 TV Series

Hanedan – Dynasty – http://youtu.be/YjpCU4Zy9Cs

The Equalizer – http://youtu.be/uB1NiNKwueE

Miami Vice – http://youtu.be/itU19NopUJY

Stingray – http://youtu.be/9FNEvOIeAjY

21 Jump Street – http://youtu.be/ajKI4lRGwZ8

ALF – http://youtu.be/-NVr-vXIa-A

LA LAW – http://youtu.be/DouX9Ubw-Xw

Cagney ve Lacey – http://youtu.be/FJ-RDj_50oI

Hill Caddesi Karakolu – http://youtu.be/oUX3TPKVf_Y

Simon & Simon – http://youtu.be/IDhz_mVcVCQ

Buck Rogers – http://youtu.be/CO8kFHCXiEg

Charlie’nin Melekleri – http://youtu.be/OVtVru9KXao

Charles İş Başında – http://youtu.be/yUSetd7b4lo

Dempsey & Makepeace – http://youtu.be/CFfFuwd5L5c

Güzel & Çirkin – http://youtu.be/gYV4h0dRZpI

Wiseguy – http://youtu.be/xcpWqf6k3ds

Hart to Hart – http://youtu.be/HBzcrAcOBHI

Taggart – http://youtu.be/o9Pfhtt2Es0

Booker – http://youtu.be/tH4ySG-KLm8

Oyunlaştırma (Gamification)

Oyunlaştırma (gamification) , tüm dünyada popülerliği ve bu sayede de buna yönelik ürünlerin giderek çoğaldığı bir kavram veya metod.

Temel olarak, ilgi çekilmek istenen bir konunun, oyun mekaniklerini kullanarak, kullanıcılar tarafından daha fazla ilgi ve etkileşim almasının sağlanmasına oyunlaştırma (gamification) deniyor.

Özellikle son yıllarda, e-öğrenme uygulamalarında, ve tabi ki Facebook gibi sosyal paylaşım platformlarının sayesinde pek çok pazarlama kampanyasında kullanılıyor. Tüm dünyada en bilinenlerden biri “Foursquare” uygulamasıdır. Kullanıcılarına ziyaret ettikleri mekanlarda, “check-in” (giriş) olma şansı veren bu uygulamada, yapılan “check-in” aktivitesi ile kullanıcılara puanlar kazandırıyor. Kullanıcılar, sıklıkla ziyaret ettikleri veya zaman geçirdikleri mekânlarda “mayor” (belediye başkanı) statüsüne ulaşarak, o mekandan hediyeler kazanabiliyorlar.

Oyunlaştırma Gamification Bilgi Kurdu

E-Öğrenme konusunda tüm dünyada söz sahibi olan Elearnirng Guild araştırmacılarından Brenda Endersoyunlaştırma dünyasının duayeni sayılan Karl Kapp‘ın da katkılarıyla çok güzel bir araştırmaya imza atmış;

GAMIFICATION, GAMES, AND LEARNING: What Managers and Practitioners Need to Know – OYUNLAŞTIRMA, OYUNLAR VE ÖĞRENME: Yöneticilerin ve Kullanıcıların Bilmesi Gerekenler başlıklı bu makaleyi aşağıdaki linkten indirebilirsiniz.

Gamification Guild Research

Pitching to VCs – Preparing Great Presentation for VCs

This post wac originally written by Baris Karadogan in his blog. He is currently CEO Hip Digital Media.

The pitches I see have a few golden nuggets in them, but more often than not a few key elements are missing.  This time I am attaching what I call a ‘great VC pitch’.  It’s 14 slides and touches all the important aspects of any business that the entrepreneur needs to think of.

But I don’t want to give these slides in a vacuum.  In each slide, I’ll explain what needs to be described, an example right answer, and what a VC will be thinking when seeing the slide.  I am guessing that the latter is no commonly known among entrepreneurs.  When giving the right answer, I am thinking of a fictitious, online dating startup who is fundraising.

Slide 1:  Mission Statement

This is the one liner of the company that describes what it’s doing.  It’s best here if you relate to a past success.  A correct mission statement for our fictitious dating company would be “Skype for online dating” if it is free and distributes virally eliminated the subscriber acquisition cost that’s a big cost item for telcos and online dating companies.

What the VC is Thinking: “Why should I be interested in this?”

Great Presentations for VCs

Slide 2:  Market

How big is it and how fast is it growing?  That’s what you want to convey.  Our fictitious dating company would say there are 100M singles in the US and 150M in Europe.  Dating goes for about $20/mo and there are only 5M paying online daters.

What the VC is thinking:  “Can I build a billion dollar company?”

Slide 3: Problem

How big is the customer’s problem that you are solving?  Finding a soulmate is hard, that’s the problem online dating solves.  The harder the problem, the more value there is to capture by solving it.

What the VC is thinking:  “How good will my gross margins be?”

Slide 4: Solution to the Problem

What is your company’s unique solution?  A good answer may be “we have a much better matching engine that determines who would be a good match for you”

What the VC is thinking: “Why hasn’t anybody done this before?”

Slide 5: Team

Who is the team, what is their past experience?  Good answers here have team members with good startup and big company experience that’s relevant

What the VC is thinking: “Would I bet my childrens’ future on this team?”

Stop right here…These 5 slides are critical, and they have to be in this order.  If you follow this model, in 5 slides you’ve told, what you do, what market you are in, what the problem is, what your solution is and who you are.  This way you’ll never come to the end of a pitch and hear “What is it that you do?”

Startup Pitch

Slide 6: Technology

What’s your technology and why is it defensible?  A good answer would be a matching engine that’s more accurate, and based on specific research done by the founders.

What the VC is thinking: “How long will it take to deliver this technology?  1 year, or 5 years?

Slide 7: Customers

Who is buying the product and why?  A good answer for an internet company is to show traction.  How many users do you have and how many sign up per day?

What the VC is thinking:  “Does the value proposition hold water?”


The most important slide of the whole presentation.  A good answer here shows how well you’ve thought about your business.  Per user economics is how VC’s reduce all business to the same units.  How much does it take for you to acquire a customer?  How much revenue do you get per customers?  What’s your cost of goods per customer?  What does it cost you to service each customer?  What is churn?  What is the lifetime value of a customer and profit per lifetime of the customer? Any entrepreneur who doesn’t have the answers or see the risks, doesn’t yet understand his/her business.

What the VC is thinking: “What is a customer worth?”

Slide 9: Go To Market Strategy

OK, you have a great product, how do you get in front of a customer?  What channels will you use and how powerful are they.  A good answer would be to show that there is possibility for viral distribution.  If one customer brings more than 1 customer to you every month you have a viral business.

What the VC is thinking:  “How will the channel affect the company?”

Great presentation from Steve Jobs

Slide 10:  Milestones

When is alpha, when is beta, and when will the product be ready?  A good answer is, “the $x we raise will get us to 2M users”

What the VC is thinking:  “Will there be another financing necessary?  If so will I get a step up in valuation?”

Slide 11: Financials

Show the Income statement, balance sheet and, cash flow, preferably in one slide.  A good answer would one that implies that “even if we are off by 2x, this is still a good business.”

What the VC is thinking:  “Are these numbers credible or just wishful thinking?”

Slide 12: Competition

Put a 2×2 matrix with the most important variables in the axes.  The exercise is for you to reduce your business to the two most important competitive variables.  Usually it is 1 or 2.

What the VC is thinking: “Does this team understand their competition?”

Slide 13: Financing History

How much have you raised to date?  Who are your investors?  A great answer here is one that says “we’ve been frugal and will continue to be so”

What the VC is thinking: “Who are these co-investors and can I trust them?”

Slide 14:  Why This VC

This slide is optional.  But any team that says “We like your firm because you can help us with xyz relationships” shows that they’ve done their homework investigating the VC.  That’s a good thing

What the VC is thinking: “Flattery will get you anywhere!”  …and it is true.

I am also attaching the powerpoint if anyone wants to use the template

Download a_great_pitch.ppt

Please also check out this site to see some great examples of successful companies’ early demo pitches: http://bestpitchdecks.com/

Ölçme Değerlendirme Sistemlerinde Teknolojik Araçlar


Geçen Kasım ayında TEGEP üyelerine sunduğumuz, Ölçme-Değerlendirmeyle Sistemlerinde Teknolojik Araçlar başlıklı sunumumu burada bulabilirsiniz.


IBM reveals its top five innovation predictions for the next five years

IBM reveals its top five innovation predictions for the next five years

IBM director of education transformation Chalapathy Neti.

IBM revealed its predictions for five big innovations that will change our lives within five years.

Bernie Meyerson, vice president of innovation at IBM.

Bernie Meyerson, the vice president of innovation at IBM.

The IBM “5 in 5″ is the eighth year in a row that IBM has made predictions about technology, and this year’s prognostications are sure to get people talking. We discussed them with Bernie Meyerson, the vice president of innovation at IBM, and he told us that the goal of the predictions is to better marshal the company’s resources in order to make them come true.

“We try to get a sense of where the world is going because that focuses where we put our efforts,” Meyerson said. “The harder part is nailing down what you want to focus on. Unless you stick your neck out and say this is where the world is going, it’s hard to you can turn around and say you will get there first. These are seminal shifts. We want to be there, enabling them.”

(See our complete interview with Meyerson here).

In a nutshell, IBM says:

  • The classroom will learn you.
  • Buying local will beat online.
  • Doctors will use your DNA to keep you well.
  • A digital guardian will protect you online.
  • The city will help you live in it.

Meyerson said that this year’s ideas are based on the fact that everything will learn. Machines will learn about us, reason, and engage in a much more natural and personalized way. IBM can already figure out your personality by deciphering 200 of your tweets, and its capability to read your wishes will only get better. The innovations are being enabled by cloud computing, big data analytics (the company recently formed its own customer-focused big data analytics lab), and adaptive learning technologies. IBM believes the technologies will be developed with the appropriate safeguards for privacy and security, but each of these predictions raises additional privacy and security issues.

As computers get smarter and more compact, they will be built into more devices that help us do things when we need them done. IBM believes that these breakthroughs in computing will amplify our human abilities. The company came up with the predictions by querying its 220,000 technical people in a bottoms-up fashion and tapping the leadership of its vast research labs in a top-down effort.

Here’s some more detailed description and analysis on the predictions.

In five years, the classroom will learn you.

In five years, the classroom will learn you to help tailor instruction to your individual needs.

The classroom will learn you

Globally, two out of three adults haven’t gotten the equivalent of a high school education. But IBM believes the classrooms of the future will give educators the tools to learn about every student, providing them with a tailored curriculum from kindergarten to high school.

“Your teacher spends time getting to know you every year,” Meyerson said. “What if they already knew everything about how you learn?”

In the next five years, IBM believes teachers will use “longitudinal data” such as test scores, attendance, and student behavior on electronic learning platforms — and not just the results of aptitude tests. Sophisticated analytics delivered over the cloud will help teachers make decisions about which students are at risk, their roadblocks, and the way to help them. IBM is working on a research project with the Gwinnett County Public Schools in Georgia, the 14th largest school district in the U.S. with 170,000 students. The goal is to increase the district’s graduation rate. And after a $10 billion investment in analytics, IBM believes it can harness big data to help students out.

“You’ll be able to pick up problems like dyslexia instantly,” Meyerson said. “If a child has extraordinary abilities, they can be recognized. With 30 kids in a class, a teacher cannot do it themselves. This doesn’t replace them. It allows them to be far more effective. Right now, the experience in a big box store doesn’t resemble this, but it will get there.”

In five years, buying local will beat online as you get online data at your fingertips in the store.

In five years, buying local will beat online as you get online data at your fingertips in the store.

Buying local will beat online

Online sales topped $1 trillion worldwide last year, and many physical retailers have gone out of business as they fail to compete on price with the likes of Amazon. But innovations for physical stores will make buying local turn out better. Retailers will use the immediacy of the store and proximity to customers to create experiences that online-only retail can’t replicate. The innovations will bring the power of the Web right to where the shopper can touch it. Retailers could rely on artificial intelligence akin to IBM’s Watson, which played Jeopardy better than many human competitors. The Web can make sales associates smarter, and augmented reality can deliver more information to the store shelves. With these technologies, stores will be able to anticipate what a shopper most wants and needs.

And they won’t have to wait two days for shipping.

“The store will ask if you would like to see a certain camera and have a salesperson meet you in a certain aisle where it is located,” Meyerson said. “The ability to do this painlessly, without the normal hassle of trying to find help, is very powerful.”

This technology will get so good that online retailers are likely to set up retail showrooms to help their own sales.

“It has been physical against online,” Meyerson said. “But in this case, it is combining them. What that enables you to do is that mom-and-pop stores can offer the same services as the big online retailers. The tech they have to serve you is as good as anything in online shopping. It is an interesting evolution but it is coming.”

In five years, doctors will routinely use your DNA to keep you well.


In five years, doctors will routinely use your DNA to keep you well.

Doctors will use your DNA to keep you well

Global cancer rates are expected to jump by 75 percent by 2030. IBM wants computers to help doctors understand how a tumor affects a patient down to their DNA. They could then figure out what medications will best work against the cancer, and fulfill it with a personalized cancer treatment plan. The hope is that genomic insights will reduce the time it takes to find a treatment down from weeks to minutes.

“The ability to correlate a person’s DNA against the results of treatment with a certain protocol could be a huge breakthrough,” Meyerson said. It’ll be able to scan your DNA and find out if any magic bullet treatments exist that will address your particular ailment.

IBM recently made a breakthrough with a nanomedicine that it can engineer to latch on to fungal cells in the body and attack them by piercing their cell membranes. The fungi won’t be able to adapt to these kinds of physical attacks easily. That sort of advance, where the attack is tailored against particular kinds of cells, will be more common in the future.

In five years, a digital guardian will protect you online.

In five years, a digital guardian will protect you online.

A digital guardian will protect you online

We have multiple passwords, identifications, and devices than ever before. But security across them is highly fragmented. In 2012, 12 million people were victims of identity fraud in the U.S. In five years, IBM envisions a digital guardian that will become trained to focus on the people and items it’s entrusted with. This smart guardian will sort through contextual, situational, and historical data to verify a person’s identity on different devices. The guardian can learn about a user and make an inference about behavior that is out of the norm and may be the result of someone stealing that person’s identity. With 360 degrees of data about someone, it will be much harder to steal an identity.

“In this case, you don’t look for the signature of an attack,” Meyerson said. “It looks at your behavior with a device and spots something anomalous. It screams when there is something out of the norm.”

In five years, the city will help you live in it.

In five years, the city will help you live in it.

The city will help you live in it

IBM says that, by 2030, the towns and cities of the developing world will make up 80 percent of urban humanity and by 2050, seven out of every 10 people will be a city dweller. To deal with that growth, the only way cities can manage is to have automation, where smarter cities can understand in real-time how billions of events occur as computers learn to understand what people need, what they like, what they do, and how they move from place to place.

IBM predicts that cities will digest information freely provided by citizens to place resources where they are needed. Mobile devices and social engagement will help citizens strike up a conversation with their city leaders. Such a concept is already in motion in Brazil, where IBM researchers are working with a crowdsourcing tool that people can use to report accessibility problems, via their mobile phones, to help those with disabilities better navigate urban streets.

Of course, as in the upcoming video game Watch Dogs from Ubisoft, a bad guy could hack into the city and use its monitoring systems in nefarious ways. But Meyerson said, “I’d rather have the city linked. Then I can protect it. You have an agent that looks over the city. If some wise guy wants to make the sewage pumps run backwards, the system will shut that down.”

The advantage of the ultraconnected city is that feedback is instantaneous and the city government can be much more responsive.

Source: http://venturebeat.com

2013 Yılının En Önemli Buluşları

Dünya genelindeki laboratuvarlarda yıl içinde geliştirilen 10 buluş, bilim dünyasında yeni heyecanlar yarattı. ODTÜ URAP Başkanı ve ODTÜ Kimya Bölümü Öğretim Üyesi Prof. Dr. Ural Akbulut, Science ve Nature gibi bilimsel kaynaklardan 2013’te dünya bilim dünyasında yaşanan önemli gelişmeleri derledi. Buna göre, 2013’ün en önemli buluşları arasında olanlar; (Ama en önemli buluş, en sondaki Ek’te !!!)

2013 Bilimsel Gelişmeler

İngiliz bilim adamı Peter Higgs’in, 1964’te maddelere kütle kazandıran bir parçacık ve alan olması gerektiğini öne sürmesinin ardından başka fizikçiler de buna paralel bir görüş açıkladı. Uzun yıllardır yürütülen çalışmalar sonrası CERN’de 103 ülkeye mensup araştırmacılardan oluşan 9 bin kişi, 2012’de izine rastladıkları Higgs Bozonunun varlığını 2013’te kanıtladı. CERN’de bu buluşa katkı yapanlar arasında Türkiye’den de bilim insanları vardı. Peter Higgs ve Francois Englert, 2013 Nobel Fizik Ödülü’nü Higgs mekanizmasını önerdikleri için aldı.

Beyne giden damarların tıkanması sonucunda, oksijensiz kalan beyin hücrelerinin kısa sürede ölmeye başladığı ve bu durumun felce neden olduğu biliniyor. Oxford Üniversitesi araştırmacıları, beynin belirli bir bölümündeki hücrelerin ise hamartin adlı bir protein üreterek uzun süre oksijensiz yaşadığını buldu. Profesör A. Buchan, beyinde hafıza ve yön bulmada önemli rolü olan hipokampus adlı bölgedeki hücrelerin, beyin oksijensiz kaldığında hamartin üreterek uzun süre nasıl yaşadığını buldu. Bu hücrelerin ürettiği hamartinin, hücreleri enerji tasarrufuna zorladığı ve hücrelerin de faaliyetlerini durdurduğunu açıkladı. Beyin hücrelerinin, hamartinin etkisiyle protein üretmeyi durdurup var olanları parçalayarak kendileri için kullandıkları anlaşıldı. Buchan, beynin diğer bölümlerinin de kansız kalınca hamartin üretmesini sağlayacak bir yöntem bulunursa felcin neden olduğu ölümlerin önleneceğini vurguladı. Çalışmanın detaylarını veren makale, Nature Medicine dergisinde yayınlandı.

Harvard’da 12 yıldır mikro robot geliştirmek için araştırma yapan Profesör R. J. Wood ve ekibi, robotun tüm parçalarını kendileri üretti. Geliştirilen mikro motor, kanat ve kontrol sistemlerinin teknik detayları Science dergisinde yayınlandı. Wood ve ekibi, arı ve sineklerin kanat çırpışını filme çekip analiz etti ve hafif malzemelerden kanat ve mikro motorlar yaptı. Saniyede 120 kez kanat çırpan mikro robotların boyu 3 santimetre, ağırlığı ise 0,080 gram. Kanatların gözle görülemeyecek bir hızla çırpması için elektrik alanı uygulanınca büzülen, ince seramik çubuklar kullanıldı.

ABD’de Georgia Institute of Technology’de, Profesör Z. L. Wang, akıllı deri üretti. Suni deride 8 bin transistör bulunuyor. Transistörler basınç altında birbirinden bağımsız olarak elektrik üretiyor. Her transistör insanın parmak ucu gibi 10 kilo paskal basıncı hissediyor. Çalışmanın detayları, Science dergisinde yayınlanacak. Bu deriyle robotlar hassas işleri yapabilecek. Elini kaybedenlerin robot elleri, bu deriyle kaplanarak hissetmeleri sağlanacak.

İngiltere’de Imperial College London’da öğretim üyesi olan Macar kimyacı Z. Takats, akıllı Bistüri geliştirdi. Takatz, cerrahların elektrokoter denilen cerrahi bıçağıyla hastanın dokularını keserken kanserli dokularla sağlıklı dokuların çıkardıkları dumanlardaki gazın yapılarının farklı olduğunu buldu. Böylece, cerrahlar, ameliyatta kestikleri dokunun kanserli mi sağlıklı mı olduğunu birkaç saniyede öğrenecek. Analizin patoloji laboratuvarında yapılması ise 30 dakika sürebiliyor. Yakında kullanıma sunulacak cihaz ameliyatlarda kanserli dokuların içeride kalabilmesi ya da istemeden sağlıklı dokuların alınması gibi riskleri ortadan kaldıracak.

ABD’de Northwestern ve Illinois Üniversites’nin ortak çalışmasıyla esneyen ve bükülen pil üretildi. Çok küçük 100 lityum iyon pili esnek tellerle birbirine bağlandı. Esnek bir plastik malzeme üzerine yerleştirilen pil, uzaktan şarj edildiği için kablolu şarj cihazına gerek bulunmuyor. Bükülebilen bilgisayar ve televizyonlar için gerekli olan bu pilin uzaktan şarj edilir olması önemli bir gelişme olarak kabul ediliyor.

  • Demir pası ve Güneş ışığı ile ucuz hidrojen üretimi

Lozan Üniversitesinden Prof. Dr. M. Gratzel ve Technion Teknoloji Enstitüsü profesörlerinden A. Rotschild, ucuz malzemelerle yeni bir teknik geliştirdi. Gratzel, ekibiyle yaptığı çalışmalarla, Güneş pillerinin verimini artırmak için 90’larda geliştirdiği birleşik pillerin pratik kullanımını sağladıl. Çalışma Nature Materials dergisinde yayınlandı. Pilin verimini artırma çalışmaları sürüyor.

Avustralya’da Queensland Üniversitesi ve Avustralya Ulusal Üniversitesinin ortak çalışmasıyla, kuantum mekaniğinin prensibi kullanılarak mikroskop yapıldı. Bu çalışma, Nature Photonics’de yayınlandı. Mikroskop, yaşayan hücrelerin iç yapılarını hücreye zarar vermeden inceleme olanağı verecek. Doç. Dr. W. Bowen, bu çalışma ile kuantum fiziğinin teknolojiye uygulanabildiğini kanıtladıklarını vurguladı. Mikroskopla hücrelerin yaşam döngüsü izlenebilecek.

IBM’in araştırmacıları, karbonmonoksit moleküllerini, Taramalı Tünelleme Mikroskopu ile hareket ettirerek dünyanın en küçük çizgi filmini yaptı. IBM araştırmacısı Prof. Dr. H. Rohrer ve G. Binnig, 1981’de bu mikroskopu geliştirip 1986’da Nobel Fizik Ödülü almıştı. Bu mikroskopla malzemelerin yüzeyi atom düzeyinde görüntüleniyor. IBM araştırmacıları atom düzeyinde araştırma yaparken “Çocuk ve Atomu” adlı bir çizgi film hazırladı. Bakır levha üzerine yerleştirilen karbonmonoksit molekülleriyle çocuk ve topunun şekli oluşturuldu. Mikroskopta, karbonmonoksit molekülündeki oksijen atomu nokta halinde görünüyor. Bu yöntemle 242 farklı resim üretilerek 94 saniyelik çizgi film yapıldı.

ABD’de Massachusetts General Hastanesinde, laboratuvar ortamında rejenere edilen fare böbreği, bir fareye takılınca idrar üretmeye başladı. Dr. Harald Ott, daha önce damarların rejenere edildiği tekniği kullanarak böbreği oluşturdu ve ilk kez tam bir organ rejenere edilmiş oldu. Önce ölü bir farenin böbreği alındı ve içinde özel bir sıvı bulunan yıkama makinesine konuldu. Sıvıdaki enzim ve parçalayıcı maddeler böbrekteki ölü fareye ait hücreleri parçalayarak temizledi. Geriye böbreğin iskeleti olan ve bal peteğini andıran matris kaldı. Sonra yeni doğmuş fareden alınan böbrek hücreleri, özel bir ortamda bu böbrek matrisine aşılanarak böbrek dokuları oluşturuldu. Ek. Türkiye’de Laik Devlet Okullarında okutulan  mecburi din dersleri süresi iki katına çıkarıldı, Fizik, Kimya, Biyoloji  dersleri seçmeli oldu.

Post Navigation