Dharma Monk

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Archive for the category “HR”

24 Charts Of Leadership Styles Around The World

Different cultures can have radically different leadership styles, and international organizations would do well to understand them.

British linguist Richard D. Lewis charted these differences in his book “When Cultures Collide,” first published in 1996 and now in its third edition, and he teaches these insights in seminars with major corporate clients.

From structured individualism in the U.S. to ringi-sho consensus in Japan, the charts seem intuitively correct, if not unilaterally true across a country.

Lewis acknowledges the risks of dealing in stereotypes: “Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception. There is, however, such a thing as a national norm.”

He argues that these patterns won’t change any time soon: “Even in countries where political and economic change is currently rapid or sweeping, deeply rooted attitudes and beliefs will resist a sudden transformation of values when pressured by reformists, governments or multinational conglomerates.”

With permission from the author, we are posting 24 charts of leadership styles from his book, with a brief summary of his comments about each below:


Leadership Charts Layout_02


British managers are diplomatic, casual, helpful, willing to compromise, and seeking to be fair, though they can be ruthless when necessary. Unfortunately, their adherence to tradition can result in a failure to comprehend differing values in others.

American managers are assertive, aggressive, goal and action oriented, confident, vigorous, optimistic, and ready for change. They are capable of teamwork and corporate spirit, but they value individual freedom and their first interest is furthering their own career.

French managers tend to be autocratic and paternalistic, with an impressive grasp of the many issues facing their company. Opinions of experienced middle managers and technical staff may be dismissed.

Swedish management is decentralized and democratic. The rationale is that better informed employees are more motivated and perform better. The drawback is that decisions can be delayed.

Charts taken and text summarized from “When Cultures Collide” with permission from author Richard Lewis.

Source: Business Insider
Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/leadership-styles-around-the-world-2013-12#ixzz2xl3JIjID

These Diagrams Reveal How To Negotiate With People Around The World

You can’t expect negotiations with French to be like negotations with Americans, and the same holds true for cultures around the world.

British linguist Richard D. Lewis charted communication patterns as well as leadership styles and cultural identities in his book, “When Cultures Collide,” now in a 2005 third edition. His organization offers classes in cross-cultural communication for big clients ranging from Unilever to BMW.

In support of cultural studies, he writes: “By focusing on the cultural roots of national behavior, both in society and business, we can foresee and calculate with a surprising degree of accuracy how others will react to our plans for them, and we can make certain assumptions as to how they will approach us. A working knowledge of the basic traits of other cultures (as well as our own) will minimize unpleasant surprises (culture shock), give us insights in advance, and enable us to interact successfully with nationalities with whom we previously had difficulty.”

Although cultural generalizations can be overly reductive, Lewis, who speaks ten languages, insists it can be done fairly, writing: “Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception. There is, however, such a thing as a national norm.”

When meeting with French, be prepared for a vigorous logical debate.

When meeting with Americans, expect them to lay all their cards on the table, get upset when there’s a disagreement, and resolve as fast as possible with one or both sides making concessions.

We’ll go over the rest in brief after a selection of communication charts taken with permission from “When Cultures Collide.” Below, conversational range is shown with increasing width, obstacles are marked in gray, and cultural traits are noted as well.


As you may surmise, “When Cultures Collide” spends relatively little time on today’s emerging markets, which is unfortunate but not surprising since it was originally published in 1996. The book does offer some commentary on Africa, South America, and other places not mentioned here, however, as well as much further commentary on these 25 countries — and we advise anyone interested in international communication to check it out.

Let’s go over the other diagrams in brief,  paraphrasing and quoting from Lewis:

Source: Business Insider

Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/communication-charts-around-the-world-2014-3#ixzz2xl20VSiV

Nine Training Alternatives to ‘Correct’ and ‘Incorrect’

Imagine a trainer at the front of the room responding to a participant’s comment by saying nothing more than “You’re right!” or “Incorrect.” Imagine this happening over and over again.

Even though it seems futile, this is one of the most common types of feedback we use in e-learning courses to respond to user actions and answers. In fact, many authoring tools come with these vacuous statements as their default response.

If we’re going after higher-order thinking and maximum learning transfer, then we’re giving up a golden opportunity when we forgo real feedback and instead resort to “correct” and “incorrect.” We need to find ways to close the feedback loop.

You Have Lots of Options

There are many strategies for providing feedback, depending on the context and type of instruction, the objectives of the learning activity, and the audience’s level of expertise. Let’s look at some of your options for providing feedback that is sufficiently informative and moves the learner forward.

1. Real World Consequences

Analog World: Some of the most ideal feedback replicates what happens in the analog world. In simulations and virtual worlds, learners are given a chance to explore, manipulate and practice so they can learn in a safe environment.

In a reasonably accurate simulation, feedback occurs naturally as the result of an action. For example, in a driving simulation, turning a simulated steering wheel to the right appears to turn the car to the right. That’s feedback.

Digital World: Then again, sometimes our simulations replicate the digital world, as in a software simulation. Too often, software simulations are completely canned, so that users can only take one action. If possible, allow for more interactivity so learners can try out the simulated software a bit to better understand how to perform a task. With more flexibility, the feedback simulates the real (digital) world. For example, when the learner clicks a menu item, the menu displays. That’s real world feedback.

We often don’t have the budget for highly robust or complex simulations, so let’s look at some other options.

2. Hints and Cues

During interactions, learners might require several tries in order to clarify a learning point or fine-tune their discriminatory skills. If this is the type of interaction you’re designing, then valuable hints and cues are a good way to assist learners without completely taking away the benefit of making errors.

3. Branching in Stories and Scenarios

When using stories and scenarios in e-learning, it’s natural to take learners down a different path depending on their response. That’s a type of feedback. For example, in an emergency medical training course, the choice of one drug results in stabilizing a patient whereas the choice of another drug results in dangerously high blood-pressure levels.

The difficult part from a design and development perspective is to determine how many paths to design and implement. A simpler approach is to design short forks in the road and then merge the two or three paths back together. It’s one way to avoid a huge design and development effort.

Sensitive Feedback_Elearningguru4. Context-Sensitive Feedback

If you don’t want to build many paths in a story or scenario, simply provide unique feedback specific to each response. In the medical scenario above, an incorrect choice would produce feedback about the danger of the selected drug and request that the learner select another one. Even though context-sensitive feedback is not as compelling as branching, it is more engaging than a facts-only exercise and probably more beneficial to learning.

I think that context-sensitive feedback should be the minimal type of feedback we provide as learning experience designers. This means that we should always provide unique feedback that is specific to each response or action the learner takes. It works in multiple-choice tests as well as games, stories and virtual environments.

5. Incentivized Feedback

Although there is no one type of feedback in learning games, gaining points or completing a challenge is motivating. This type of feedback acts as an incentive to continue playing the game and learning.

As Karl Kapp writes in The Gamification of Learning and Instruction, “A player gets caught up in playing a game because the instant feedback and constant interaction are related to the challenge of the game, which is defined by the rules, which all work within the system to provoke an emotional reaction and, finally, result in a quantifiable outcome within an abstract version of a larger system.”

6. Peer or Social Feedback

In a training context, you can use collaborative and social media tools to give and receive peer feedback from colleagues. For example, if you were designing a course for new coaches, you could set up a Facebook Group page for discussion. Then request that participants write about how they would handle a specific coaching situation.

The participants would comment on how each coach managed the fictitious problem and everyone would learn in the process. The added bonus here is that the act of critiquing and commenting can help reviewers themselves, according to one study where undergraduate students critiqued each others writing. (Cho and Cho, 2011)

See Social Media for Trainers by Jane Bozarth for more ways to use social media for learning.

7. Explanatory Feedback

You can apply explanatory feedback to any learning experience in which errors are caused by misconceptions or a lack of knowledge. If your design has frequent opportunities for learners to respond, then you can catch and remediate misconceptions as the learner is constructing meaning.

In particular, explanatory feedback, rather than corrective feedback, is a good choice for discovery learning as it helps learners build accurate mental models. In addition, there is evidence that explanatory feedback reduces cognitive load. (Moreno, 2004)

8. Self-Directed Feedback

Motivated or mature learners can benefit from self-directed feedback. As the learning designer, you can present thoughtful questions that encourage learner reflection, self-evaluation and self-assessment.

For example, after requesting that learners write a short essay response to a question, provide an ideal response or specific criteria as feedback. Then let learners evaluate their own essay and compare it to the ideal. There are many types of self-evaluation questions that can encourage higher-order thinking and reflection.

9. Worked Examples as Feedback

Worked-out examples are step-by-step demonstrations of how to solve a problem. They are thought to be effective with learners who have limited prerequisite knowledge because these examples reduce cognitive load. (Sweller, et al, 1998)

If the focus of your instruction is problem solving, then you can provide worked-out examples for learners to study and then again as feedback after they solve a problem. Note that worked examples are not effective for learners who are skilled at a task as it interferes with their ability to solve problems like an expert.

Source: Mindflash

Doing Business Better through Enterprise Mobility

Source: The Social Workplace – ELIZABETH LUPFER

Follow me @Elearningguru

Over 5.3 billion people or 77% of the world’s population are now on mobile. This growth has led to an explosion of various devices and networks connecting each other, and creating a borderless world. Consumers and enterprises views on how a mobile device can change their lives or enable them to do business better is rapidly evolving, even as vendors and service providers continuously innovate to fuel this mobile culture. The consequence of this end-user demand has been consumerization of IT.

With the blurring of lines between the professional and personal, CIOs must rethink their mobility strategy. This could be through creating programs to support corporate applications, equipping your employees with smartphones and tablets or putting in place processes to drive customer engagement, supply chain operations and collaboration with partners/suppliers.

Enterprise Mobility is the use of mobile technologies to enable anytime anywhere information access to employees, customers and suppliers to bring about improvements in revenue and operational performances, employee productivity, and customer satisfaction.

In fact, enterprise mobility can have the following positive outcomes:


As the IT landscape evolves, companies that embrace the social and technological challenges originating from that enterprise mobility will be better equipped to lead the growth and future of the organization. For more information, check out this infographic from Wipro Mobility Solutions:

Enterprise Mobility - Elearningguru

Enterprise Mobility Infographic

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